Translation genres and stylistic classificationThus, the stylistic classification of translation genres (depending on the nature of the texts being translated) and the psycholinguistic classification (depending on the nature of the translator’s activities in the translation process). According to the first, stylistic classification, translations exist:
- literary translation;
- informative translation.
1. Literary translationIn the literary translation, neither omissions, nor additions, nor changes are allowed. If the work has flaws, they must be translated respectively. The purpose of such translations is to change, if possible, the source for those who cannot understand it due to lack of knowledge of the language, and to give them the means and opportunity to enjoy and estimate it.
2. Informative translationIt is the translation of texts, the main purpose of which is to communicate information to the reader, and not to impact emotionally or aesthetically. This includes all information related to business, science, daily-living, and social and political activities. By the way, translation of detective stories, essays, travel notes and similar texts, which have informative rather than aesthetic impact, is also the informative translation. This includes translation of: scientific and technical materials, journalistic, official and business, patent, political and feature materials, websites etc. It is understood that in practice many texts combine the characteristics of literary and informative texts, that is, there is often no clear division. Some fragments are informative, and some are literary. The psycholinguistic classification of the translation takes into account the nature of the translator’s actions in the translation process, namely the way the source text is perceived and the way the target text is created, dividing the translation activity into:
3. InterpretingThe type of translation, which is performed in oral form, i.e. aurally. It is complicated by the fact that the interpreter has no right to make mistake (a word spoken is past recalling). Everything must be translated correctly at the first time. Here we single out two sub-types of translation: simultaneous interpreting and consecutive interpreting.
4. Written translationIt is performed in writing, i.e. it is recorded in the form of texts. This type of translation is convenient in that the translator can come back to separate fragments of the text, make corrections in the course of translation, rethink individual paragraphs, etc. A classic example of such translation: the translator receives the text and must provide the customer with translation of the text into the required language in writing.
Types of oral translation named as interpreting:
5. Consecutive interpretingThe interpreter interprets the speaker’s speech during pauses, that is, the speaker speaks several sentences, becomes silent, and the interpreter interprets everything that has been said. The size of speech fragments to be interpreted may vary greatly: A speaker may speak for a couple of minutes or more than 20-30 minutes. In the latter case, the interpreter makes written notes helping him to recall the entire speech, because such large amount of information is difficult to keep in mind.
6. Simultaneous interpretingIt is performed by the interpreter almost simultaneously with the speaker (only 2-3 seconds slow). This type of translation is extremely complicated and requires special technical equipment: interpreter sit in separate booths, listening to the speaker through headphones, while speaking into the microphone. At that, simultaneous interpreting is performed by at least two translators who substitute each other every 20-30 minutes. Simultaneous interpreters are top professionals. Sometimes the simultaneous interpreters work without booths, sitting next to a receptor (i.e., for whom it is translated). As a rule, this occurs during small business meetings. In this case, such translation is called “whisper interpreting”, since the interpreter literally whispers the translation.
There are the following translation directions:
- monolingual translation;
- bilingual translation.
- machine translation;
- traditional translation, i.e translation performed by a human.